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各类介词:in ,of, on ,to,with ,of,at的用法  

2013-12-29 00:58:49|  分类: 资源收藏 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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2007-09-30 14:55

谈谈介词(Preposition)(一)

 

介词在英语用词里也属于难缠的一个项目。因为它涉及方面很广,而且变化多端,往

往令人捉摸不定,记起来很麻烦。因此就有有心人弄了一个《介词口诀》来帮助学习者

;也有人写了《Preposition Song》令学习者一面唱歌一面轻松地记忆介词的用法。

 

介词英文叫作Preposition (简称prep),它由pre和position组成,pre是前面的意

思,而position是位置的意思。因此以前中文译作“前置词”,就是一种放在名词(或

相当于名词的词语)前面的虚词。

 

一、常用的介词

 

about,above,across,after,against,around,at,

before,behind,below,beneath,beside,besides,between,beyond,by,

down,during,

except,

for,from,

in,inside,into,

like,

near,

of,off,on,out,outside,over,

since,

through,throughout,till,to,toward,

under,until,up,upon,

with,without,

according to,

because of,

by way of,

in addition to,

in front of,

in place of,

in regard to,

in spite of,

instead of,

on account of,

out of.

 

哇,这么一大堆!别怕别怕,大部份的介词都不难理解,比较令人头痛的只是下列几个

 

at, by, to, in, for, of, on, from, with

 

其中又以 at, by, in, on 为四大“要犯"!学习介词就是要抓住这几"要犯",看招

吧,嘿嘿!!

 

这回就谈到这里吧,噢,对了,下回就让我们先来一道《Preposition Song》洋餐吧。

 

谈谈介词(Preposition)(二)

 

二、Preposition Song (括号内是一部份介词用法提示,是我加的)

(本曲找不到原谱,但你可以自己配上适当的。如下面简单曲子就是例子:

3212/333-/222-/333-/3212/333-/2232/111-//)

 

1. In the summer at the seaside (季节用in, 在海边用at)

On the coast we like it fine (在海岸用on)

but in winter ,yes ,at Christmas (在圣诞用at)

By the fireside we recline (放置) (在炉边用by)

 

2. In July we went to Kenya (月份用in)

Stayed in Lamu by the sea, (住在Lamu用in)

We came back to Tanzania

Then across Victoria sea

 

3. Did you come here in a taxi? (乘出租汽车用in)

Or by bus, or on the train? (乘公共汽车用by, 乘火车用on)

Did you come on foot this evening (步行用on)

Or perhaps by aeroplane? (乘飞机用by)

 

4. Will you come to tea on Monday? (在星期一用on)

I′ll be home at half past three (时间三点半用at)

Yes, I′ll stay for half an hour (长达半小时用for)

if you buy some beer for me (给我for me)

 

5. In the morning I drink coffee (早晨用in the morning)

In the afternoon there′s tea (下午用in the afternoon)

In the evening I have cocoa (傍晚用in the evening)

Yes, at night ,it′s good for me. (晚上用at night)

 

6. Where′s my pencil?In the kitchen (厨房里in the kitchen)

On the table near the chair (在桌上on the table, 在椅边near the chair)

Underneath the cup and saucer (在杯和碟的下面 underneath...)

Just behind the teapot there (在茶壶后边behind...)

 

7. Can you tell me how to get to

Mr. Johnson′s coffee-bar?

Down the street and round the corner (down the street 沿着街道,round...绕过)

Past the church and there you are

 

8. Where′s the bookshop? Over there,dear (over there 那里)

First turn left,then go straight on,

Along the road,across the market (沿着路along the road, 穿过市场 across...)

It′s in front of you, dear John (在你前面 in front of you)

 

9. There is nothing on the radio (广播on the radio)

"Songs with orchestra" they said. (with后orchestra为有形物,无形物则用by)

I′m not interested in music (interested in 兴趣于)

so I think I′ll go to bed

 

10. In a moment I′ll be finished (in a moment 片刻里)

With these prepositions-so

I will say to you in English

till the next time, cheerio (加油呀) (till... 直到)

 

怎样?唱完十段歌词,你就学到许多介词用法喽。其中包括四大“要犯”at, by, in,

on。另外再加上许多虫虫蚁蚁,有的还得劳驾找一找喔,呵呵。

大家多唱几遍,下回我们再见时,你就更加胸有成“介”了,哈哈。

 

谈谈介词(Preposition)(三)

 

这里提供一个学习介词at, in, on 的幻灯片文件(PowerPoint),可供初学者使用。其

内容包括有关介词用法课文、通过歌曲学介词、通过一个请柬学习介词、测验题。其中

所有中文都是我附上的。

 

为了配合这个幻灯片所介绍的三个介词:at, in, on,下面我们较深入地介绍它们(附

带谈by) 的用法。

 

二、介词at, in, on, by 表示地方、地点、位置:

 

2.1 at 把地方、地点、位置当作一个“点”:

 

1. The begger is sitting at the corner. 那乞丐坐在角落里

 

2. Jane is waiting for you at the bus stop. Jane在巴士站等你。

3. at home 在家

4. Who's standing there at the door? 谁站在门口?

5. at the top of the page 在一页的上面

6. The shop is at the end of the road. 那商店就在路的尾端。

7. at the entrance 在进口处

8. at the crossroads 在十字路口

9. When will you arrive at the office? 你什么时候会到公司呢?

10. I'm in France, at Paris. 我住在法国巴黎。(相对法国来讲,巴黎只是一个

“点”)

11. There is a small hut at the foot of the hill. 山脚下有一座小屋子。

12. My aunt lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham.

我的姑妈住在Durham,Boretz 路门牌55号。(地址要用at,不能用in)

13. at the side 在一边

14. at reception 在招待会上

15. I'm at work. 我在工作。

16. at class/ home/ the library/ the office/ school 在班上/家里/图书馆/公

司/学校

 

2.2 in 把地方、地点、位置当作一个范围或一个封闭的空间:

 

1. I live in London. 我住在伦敦。(大城市用in)

2. I live in England, at London. 我住在英国伦敦。(England大过London喔)

3. I live in a big city, my sister lives at a small town. 我住在大城市,我

姐姐住在一个小市镇。(如果把city看做一个圆圈,small town就成一个点。因此就in

a city, at a small town. 呵呵)

4. We have a meeting in Beijing. 我们有北京有一个会议。

5. Mars is in the Solar System. 火星在太阳系里。

6. in a car 乘汽车 (不是 on a car 也不是 by a car 喔)

7. in a taxi 乘的士 (不是 on a taxi 或 by a taxi )

8. in a helicopter 乘直升机

9. in a boat 乘小船

10. in a lift (elevator) 乘电梯 (电梯像个笼子,当然要用 in 啦)

11. in the newspaper 在报上

12. in the sky 在空中

13. in the bed 在床上 (也可用 on the bed)

14. in the bedroom/ class/ library/ school 在寝室/课室/图书馆/学校

 

2.3 on 把地方、地点、位置当作一个平面:

 

1. The author's name is on the cover of the book. 在书的封面上有作者的名

字。

2. There are no prices on this menu. 在这菜单上没有价钱。

3. You are standing on my foot. 你踏到我的脚了。

4. There was a "no smoking" sign on the wall. 在那墙上有个“不准吸烟”的牌

子。

5. I live on the 7th floor at 21 Oxford Street in London. 我住在伦敦牛津街

21号八楼。(7th floor 就是八楼;注意句中的 on, at, in 的用法)

6. on a bus 乘巴士 (不是 in a bus 喔)

7. on a train 乘火车 (可想像“骑”在火车上,哈哈)

8. on a plane 乘飞机 (可想像“骑”在飞机上)

9. on a ship 乘轮船

10. on a bicycle, on a motorbike 骑自行车/摩托车

11. on a horse, on an elephant 骑马/象

12. on the radio, on television 听广播、看电视

13. on the left, on the right 在左边、在右边

14. on the way 在路上

15. on the bed 在床上 (也可用 in the bed)

16. on the ceiling 在天花板上

17. on the floor 在地板上

 

2.4 by 用在表示位置(有在旁、贴近、靠近之意):

 

1. by the fire 在炉边

2. by the seaside 在海边

3. a path by the river 沿河道路

4. by the nearest road 走近路

 

我想要记忆介词的用法,就得用一点想象力加以联想。如:at home, at the door, at

the corner等等,可想象“at家门口的角落里”。再比如: in Beijing, in a car, in

a taxi, in a boat, in a helicopter, in the sky ... 可想象为“In 北京,乘汽

车,乘的士,再乘小船,乘上直升机在空中飞”。

 

下回我们将要谈的是 at, in, on 用来表示时间的方面。再会!

 

谈谈介词(Preposition)(四)

 

三、at, in, on, by 用来表示时间

 

3.1 at (在、于)用指明一特定的时间、节日、年龄:

 

1. at dawn/ at night/ at noon/ at midnight /at daybreak

在黎明/在夜里/在中午/在午夜/在日出时

 

2. I go to school at seven in the morning. (at seven) 我早上七点钟去上学。

 

3. at half past five (五点过半小时) 在五点半

 

4. at a quarter to seven (过四分之一小时就到七点) 六点四十五分

 

5. The train is due at 12.15 p.m. (at 12.15p.m.)

那班火车的到站时间是12点15分。

 

6. at mid-autumn festival/ at Christmas / at Spring Festival

在中秋节/ 在圣诞节 /在春节

 

7. at forty 在四十岁时

 

3.2 in (在、在…之内、在…期间、在…后、过…后)

指明:天、年、月、季节、周次:

 

1. in the morning 在早上 (不可说at the morining。鬼才知道为什么不可用at,

大约因为at 没有“在…期间”的意思吧 )

 

2. in the afternoon 在下午 (在下午这段期间,呵呵,举一反三喔)

 

3. She likes to work in the evening. (或in the night) 她喜欢在晚上工作

 

4. in the day time 在白天

 

5. in 2002 (2002可读作two thousand two) 在2002年

 

6. He's to quit in May. (in May)他在五月就辞职了。

 

7. He went to Tokyo in June 2002. (in June 2002)他于2002年六月去东京。

 

8. in the second week of July 在七月份的第二周

 

9. It's too cold in winter to run outside. (in winter) 冬天里出外跑步是太

冷了。

 

10. in two months 在两个月内

 

11. in those days 在当时

 

3.3 on (在…时、在(某日)、在某日早/午/晚、当…时候、和…同时、刚一…)指明:

日子、日期、星期加上早午晚

 

1. on the first 在一号(指某月一号,如二号要说second等。其实意思是指某月的第

几天)

 

2. We're having a party on the fifth of June. (或 on June the fifth)

我们会在六月五日举行一个晚会。

 

3. on July the third 1990 在1990年7月3日

 

4. My brother is coming on Sunday. (on Sunday) 我的哥哥会在星期天来。

 

5. on Sunday morning /afternoon 在星期天早上/下午

 

6. on Friday evening 在星期五晚上

 

7. on the next morning 隔天早上

 

8. on the following afternoon 在下一个傍晚

 

9. on the night before 在前一个晚上

 

10.on the morning of 5th 在五号的早上

(你可能会说为什么不是in the morning? 如果你把morning of 抽掉,就可看出原来是

on the 5th喽。morning 也可换成evening, afternoon)

 

11. on the afternoon of his birthday

在他生日那天下午 (on the afternoon 不可用 in...,同

上)

 

3.4 by (的时候、到、等到…已经) 用在天、时间:

 

1. by day 白天(的时候)

 

2. by 2 o'clock 到两点钟

 

3. by this time 等到现在(已经)…

 

4. miss by a minute 迟一分钟

 

要记住这些规则,可以用上回我们提到的“联想法”。加油喔!再会。

 

谈谈介词(Preposition)(五)

 

四、for, since 用于表示时间:

 

4.1 我们用 for 用计量时间(年、月、日、时、分、秒等)

 

1. He held his breath for five minutes. 他闭息达五分钟。

 

2. She's lived there for ten years. 她住在那里已有十年。

 

3. The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries.

英国人和爱尔兰人之间的争吵已有七个世纪了。

 

4.2 我们用 since 表示明确的日期或时间:

 

1. He's woked here since 1980. 自从1970年他就在此工作。

 

2. She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty.

自两点半她就坐在等候室了。

 

五、表示动作的介词:to ,toward或不用介词:

 

5.1 我们用 to 表示向某处移动:

 

1. They were driving to work together. 他们一同开车去工作。

 

2. She's going to the destist's office this morning. 今早她去看牙医。

 

5.2 toward 表示移向某处:

 

1. We're moving toward the light. 我们向灯光处移动。

 

2. This is a big step towards the project's completion.

这是对于工程的完成前进了一大步。

 

5.3 不需要介词的词:home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs,

upstairs ...

 

1. Grandma went upstairs.

 

2. Rama went home.

 

3. She came inside.

 

六、介词与名词、形容词、动词的组合:

在英语里介词有时和其他的字紧密地组合在一起,可以当作一个词来看待。这种组

合很多,需要平时多加注意。

 

6.1 名词+介词:

 

1. approval of 批准

2. awareness of 意识到

3. grasp of 把握住

4. hatred of 憎恶

5. desire for 要求、愿望

6. fondness for 爱好 (I've a fondness for collecting stamps.)

7. hope for 希望、期待 (hope for the best 乐观)

8. need for 必要 (There is no need for hurrying.)

9. reason for 有必须……的理由 (have reason for...)

10. respect for 尊敬 (have respect for...)

11. belief in 信任于

12. interest in 对……有兴趣

13. success in 成功、成就

 

6.2 形容词 + 介词:

 

1. afraid of (He is not afraid of anything.)

2. aware of 觉得

3. capable of 能 (The tank is capable of holding 8 kg. of water.)

4. fond of 喜爱 (He's fond of fishing.)

5. jealous of 嫉妒于

6. made of 用……制成的

7. proud of 对……感觉光荣 (I'm proud of his acquaintance. 认识他是我的光

荣。)

8. sure of 确信 (You may be sure of his honesty.)

9. tired of 厌倦的

10. careless about 不关心、不重视

11. worried about 自找烦恼

12. familiar with 熟悉于、精通于

13. interested in 兴趣于

14. sorry for 懊悔、觉得过意不去 (You will be sorry for this some day.)

 

6.3 动词 + 介词:(这类组合特别多。要特别注意同一个动词配上不同的介词,意

 

就不同了)

 

1. care about 关心 (He doesn't care about other people. 他不关心别人。)

 

2. care for 喜欢 (Would you care for a cup of coffee? 你喜欢来杯咖啡吗?)

 

3. take care of 照顾 (Take care of yourseft. 照顾自己喔。)

 

4. dream about 梦到 (I dreamt about you last night. 昨晚我梦到你。)

 

5. dream of 梦想 (I often dream of being rich. 我时常梦想发达了。)

 

6. hear about 听到关于……的详情 (Have you hear about Jane? )

 

7. hear of 听到……的事/话 (Have you heard of a place called 'Mulu'?)

 

8. hear from 得到……的消息 (Have you heard from Ann recently?)

 

9. look at 注视、考察(Why you look at me like that?)

 

10. look for 找、指望 (Can you help me look for my keys?)

 

11. look after 照应、看守 (She is ill, she needs someone to look after

her.)

 

12. think about 思索、考虑 (What are you thinking about?)

 

13. think of 想起、企图 (He told me his name but I can't think of it now.)

 

七、多余的介词:(不必加上介词的地方就不要随意加上,括号内的介词须去掉)

 

1. She met (up with) the new coach in the hallway.

 

2. The book fell off (of) the desk.

 

3. He threw the book out (of) the window.

 

4. She wouldn't let the cat inside (of) the house.

 

5. Where did they go (to)?

 

6. Where is your college (at)?

 

八、句子里并列的介词:

 

8.1 如并列的介词相同,可去其一:(括号里的介词删去)

 

1. You can wear that outfit in summer and (in) winter.

 

2. The female was both attracted (by)(被吸引) and distracted by(使分心)

the male's dance.

 

8.2 如并列的介词不相同,相关的介词必需列出:

 

1. The children were interested in and disgusted by the movie. (interested

in感兴趣 / disgusted by讨厌)

 

2. It was clear that this player could both contribute to and learn from

every game he played. (contribute to付出 / learn from 从…学习)

 

3. He was fascinated by and enamored of this beguiling woman. (fascinated

 

源文档 <http://hi.baidu.com/phrstream/blog/item/9b0c9901ea91cb00738da5f7.html>

 

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